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Безплатна диагностика на SCANIA - Изтекла

Безплатна диагностика на SCANIA - Изтекла

Лятна промоция за стоки и услуги от "НН Сервиз" - Бош дизел център  валидна за периода от 08.08.2013 до 15.09.13 год. Безплатна компютърна диагностика на  тежкотоварни автомобили и автобуси SCANIA 

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Unit Injector

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CAM BOX 847 за стенд BOSCH ESP 815, последно поколение, за диагностика на система помпа-дюза CAM BOX 847 за стенд BOSCH ESP 815, последно поколение, за диагностика на система помпа-дюза

NN Service has a CAM BOX 847 stand for BOSCH ESP 815, latest generation diagnostic Unit Injector.

Useful information

Първата  електрически управляема Помпа-дюза произведена от ЛукасEarly Lucas electronic diesel Unit Injector (UI) is an integrated direct fuel injection system for diesel engines, combining the injector nozzle and the injection pump in a single component. The pump is usually driven by a shared camshaft.

History

Napier Deltic-двутактов ДВГ-боксерNapier Deltic opposed-piston two-stroke, sectioned. The unit injectors are low down, below the yellow fuel passages, driven by a camshaft to their left and injecting into the centre of the cylinder liner (pale blue).
Commercial usage of unit injectors in the U.I. began in early 1930s on Winton engines powering locomotives, boats, even US Navy submarines, and in 1934, Arthur Fielden was granted U.S. patent No.1,981,913 on the unit injector design later used for the General Motors two-stroke diesel engines. Most mid-sized diesel engines used a single pump and separate injectors, but some makers, such as Detroit Diesel became well-known for favouring unit injectors.
In 1994, Robert Bosch GmbH supplied the first electronic Unit Injector for commercial vehicles, and other manufacturers soon followed.
Today, major manufacturers include Robert Bosch GmbH, CAT, Cummins, Delphi Corp., Detroit Diesel Allison and the Delphi Corp. acquired Lucas Automotive.

Design and technology


Design of the Unit Injector eliminates the need for high pressure fuel pipes, and with that their associated failures, as well as allowing for much higher injection pressure to occur. The unit injector system allows accurate injection timing, and amount control as in the common rail system .
The Unit Injector is fitted into the engine cylinder head, where the fuel is supplied via integral ducts machined directly into the cylinder head. Each injector has its own pumpinlement, and in the case of electronic control, a fuel solenoid valve as well. The fuel system is divided into the low pressure (<500 kPa) fuel supply system, and the high pressure injection system (<2000 bar).

Operation principle

Delphi E1 UI on the Volvo D13A engineThe basic operation can be described as a sequence of four separate phases: the filling phase, the spill phase, the injection phase, and the pressure reduction phase.
A low pressure fuel delivery pump supplies filtered diesel fuel into the cylinder head fuel ducts, and into each injector fuel port of constant stroke pump plunger injector, which is overhead camshaft operated.
Fill phase
The constant stroke pump element on the way up draws fuel from the supply duct in to the chamber, and as long as electric solenoid valve remains de-energized fuel line is open.
Spill phase
The pump element is on the way down, and as long as solenoid valve remains de-energized the fuel line is open and fuel flows in through into the return duct.
Injection phase
The pump element is still on the way down, the solenoid is now energized and fuel line is now closed. The fuel can not pass back into return duct, and is now compressed by the plunger until pressure exceeds specific "opening" pressure, and the injector nozzle needle lifts, allowing fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber.
Pressure reduction phase
The plunger is still on its way down, the engine ECU de-energizes the solenoid when required quantity of fuel is delivered, the fuel valve opens, fuel can flow back into return duct, causing pressure drop, which in turn causes the injector nozzle needle to shut, hence no more fuel is injected.
Summary
The start of an injection is controlled by the solenoid closing point, and the injected fuel quantity is determined by the closing time, which is the length of time the solenoid remains closed. The solenoid operation is fully controlled by the engine ECU.
Additional functions
The use of electronic control allows for special functions; such as temperature controlled injection timing, cylinder balancing (smooth idle), switching off individual cylinders under part load for further reduction in emissions and fuel consumption, and multi-pulse injection (more than one injection occurrence during one engine cycle).

Development and Applications

Bosch UI на Scania R164 V8In 1993, CAT introduced "Hydraulically-actuated Electronic Unit Injection" (HEUI), where the injectors are no longer camshaft operated. First available on Navistar's 7.3 litres (445.5 cu in), V8 diesel engine. HEUI uses engine oil pressure to power high pressure fuel injection, where usual method of unit injector operation is the engine camshaft.
Unit injector fuel systems are being used on wide variety of vehicles and engines; commercial vehicle from manufacturers such as Volvo, Cummins, Detroit, CAT, and passenger vehicles from manufacturers such as Land Rover and Volkswagen Group, among others.

Bosch UI on Scania R164 V8
The Volkswagen Group mainstream marques use unit injector systems (branded "Pumpe Düse", commonly appreviated to "PD") in their Suction Diesel Injection (SDI) and Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engines.
•    In North America, the Volkswagen Jetta, Golf, and New Beetle TDI 2004-2006 are Mk4 Pumpe Düse (newer models use Mk5 BEW engines and older models use ALH engines).
Volkswagen Group major-interest truck and diesel engine maker Scania AB also use the unit injector system, which they call "Pumpe-Düse-Einspritzung", or "PDE".

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